How Does CNC Machinery Work?

The new laser cutting machine is now fully operational at Red Box Engineering.CNC Machinery at Red Box EngineeringOree Laser MachineCNC Machines are incredibly useful pieces of machinery in the world of industrial production and have become a popular solution to cutting or milling parts as they can adapt to the level of intricacy required for different tasks and can cut several unique materials. Many businesses benefit from the use of these types of equipment but how do these appliances operate?

Keep on reading to find out!

Computer numerical control (CNC) machines are fully automated, computer-controlled cutting machines which use a high-speed rotary unit known as a spindle to cut out the part required and can also carve or trim a material along to create slots, holes and other detailing. Our machines and a large percentage of other CNC milling machines operate across three axes or planes (horizontal, vertical and depth). However, there are more advanced options on the market which can run on five, adding rotational cutting to the mix, which can create highly complex 3D shapes! Whether you have a three or five axis machine, these boast other technical features such as automatic tool changers, tool carousels and magazines, coolant systems, and enclosures to keep machines running smoothly on their own without manual interference.

As their names suggest, CNC machines are controlled by a computer in which co-ordinates or G-Codes created via CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture for short) software, which can be used on any standard desktop PC. This special coding is relatively simple computer language that a CNC machine can understand and execute once uploaded to the system. The workpiece is then held in place on the bed of the machine either by a series of clamps or by high-powered vacuum suction pods, ready for the routing to begin. Motors and drive components move and control the spindle across the machine axes, executing the programmed motions via a sophisticated feedback system that constantly monitors and adjusts the cutter’s speed and position.




CNC Wood Routing at Red Box Engineering


At Red Box, we predominantly use our CNC equipment to cut metals, wood, plastics and foam for our pre-designed or bespoke toolkits, as it cuts or machines components with incredible precision and practically eliminates human error. For mass-produced items, CNC routers are the go-to choice, the benefits for the customer include:

  • It allows wood to be cut with incredible accuracy at a high speed
  • Reduced waste due to the computerized operation, eliminating human error
  • Larger cutting field – Routers have a large bed so pieces can be cut in bulk, revolutionizing production capacity
  • Once a program has been created for the router, parts can be manufactured over and over with ease


CNC broadens our horizons, as it allows to create larger items at high volume, whilst also handling complex designs.  The possibilities are endless.

If you’d like any further information, please feel free to get in contact with our Sales Team on +44 (0)2380 254285 or via email at